Retinoids in comedones treatment

Retinoids are derivatives of retinoic acid, syntetic analogs of vitamin A. Being a components of comedonal acne (also called comedones, clogged pores etc.) treating products, they regulate sebaceous secretion and skin cells keratinization processes. The fact that retinoids accumulating in the sebaceous glands reduce inflammation and treat acne is very valuable.

Retinoids possess following effects:

- remove hyperkeratosis;
- lighten the skin;
- improve skin firmness and elasticity;
- diminish wrinkles;
- reduce inflammations;
- speed up healing processes;

Types of retinoids used for acne treatments:

There are several groups of retinoids (generations).

First generation includes retinoic acid derivatives. This group includes retinol, retinal, tretinoin, isotretinoin, alitretinoin. These substances are widely used for acne treatments. They are especially effective in comedonal acne (whiteheads and blackheads comedones) therapy.

The scale of retinoids activity can be presented in the following way (form left to right):

Retinyl palmitate => Retinol (Retinol) => Retinaldehyde (retinal) => Retinoic acid (retinoic acid)

Retinoid called tretinoin reduces sebum production and accelerates skin cells regeneration, inhibits micro comedones formation and promotes closed comedones (whiteheads) into open comedones (blackheads) transformation.

Retinoid isotretinoin inhibits sebum production, prevent microcomedones and blocked pores formation, posess antibacterial and anti-iflammatory effects.

Retinol derivatives are a medication, so their usage cosmetic products is limited while retinol and retinilpalmitat are more common. This is because of that fact the cosmetics, unlike medications, is usually used for a long time and without any medical control.

Retinoids properties:

1. Comedolytic. The application prevents comedonal acne formation and promote closed comedones (whiteheads) into open comedones (blackheads) transformation making them more accessible of other medications penetration.

2. Sebostatic. Reduce sebum production preventing congested pores formation.

3. Normalize cells differentiation. Decreases hyperproliferation of sebaceous gland epithelium and decreases cell adhesion promoting drainage of clogged pores.

4. Anti-inflammatory. Reduces the inflammation around the sebaceous glands.

5. Do not cause toxic reactions.

How to use for comedones treatment:

- apply in a very thin layer only on a dry and clean skin;
- apply a small amount;
- gradually increase concentrations;
- at the beginning of the treatment apply 2-3 times a week, after 2 weeks apply every night or day and night if skin is not exposed to the sun;
- use at least 2-4 month for the best results, as a maintenance therapy use 2-3 time a week for a several month;
- depending on the skin type choose gel ( for oily skin type), cream (for dry skin) or lotion emulsion (oily to combination skin) form;

Contraindications for retinoids usage:

If you want the therapy effects increase, retinoid containing products should be used constantly, it doesn’t cause addiction. However they have some contraindications: sensitive and allergic skin, inflamed skin areas.

Retinoids should not be used by:

- pregnant women;
- those who are taking medications which increase photosensitivity (skin sensitivity to the sun);
- those who take vitamin A;

Retinoids increase skin sensitivity to the sun radiation so the sunscreen should be used. Avoid skin peels and other irritating products including alcoholic solutions and scrubs.